Correct Forequarter Assembly (viewed from side)
Left: Shows the relationship of the bone structure to the outline of the forequarters. The various large bones and groups of smaller bones are labeled with both their Latin names and the terminology in common usage.

Middle: Detail drawing of forequarter angulation. The keystone of the forequarter assembly is the Scapula (shoulder blade) although it has no skeletal linkage with the Vertebrae (backbone) but is held in its flexible position by sheets of muscles and a few ligaments. (The dog has no collarbone.)
     Approximately 67 to 70% of a Collie's weight is supported by and distributed equally between his forequarters being directed to and concentrated on the 'Vertical Centre of Gravity' (shown on drawing by a solid line, which intersects the axis of the shoulder and the centre of the heel pad as it touches the ground when the dog is standing at ease). When the dog moves, the blade rotates through a small arc upon an imaginary pivot or axis. (The blade does not have an actual pin upon which to rotate: the axis being that point which remains stationary when the pull of the muscles controlling the forward and backward movement is equalized.)
     The Scapula should be set on the Collie at an angle of 45 degrees (X) to the Horizontal when viewed from the side, and should slope downward from the highest elevation (d) to the shoulder joint (a) which is the junction of the shoulder blade with the upper arm, or Humerus. All that is meant by the expressions, ‘a good layback’--- or ‘Shoulders well laid back,’ is that the slope of the shoulders should not be less than 45 or more than 50 degrees with reference to the Horizontal line. (Imaginary) An imaginary line extended from the fop of the shoulder (d) and continuing through, or passing over, the Olecranon (elbow) should intersect the plane of the shoulder at 90 degrees to form angle "Y". This line is theoretical because the Humerus (upper arm) is not a straight bone, but the axis are parallel to each other and therefore parallel to the line shown.
     The length of the Scapula (a-b) should equal the length of the Humerus (a-c). The angle of the attachment of the Radius-ulna (lower arm) is not important, provided the bones are straight and stand vertically as observed from either side or front. The pastern is sloped in order to place the heel pad directly under the centre of gravity and to provide additional length of reach of fore leg and increase the gripping power and leverage of the foot.
     It is difficult to measure the value of forequarter angulation when neither the bones or angles can be seen, so the ‘Visional Approximation of the Centre of Gravity’ can be judged along the dotted line (d-e). The highest point of the shoulder should be in line with the rear section of the elbow joint and this line should strike the ground behind the heel pad as shown on the drawing.
     In Action, Collies conforming to these basic principles of forequarter angulation when observed from the side move correctly. (Assuming, of course, that the rear assembly is also correctly put together). The reach, or stride, is long; the feet are lifted only far enough to clear the ground; and the gait smooth and even; and the ground covered with a minimum of muscular effort.

Right: Correct forequarters as observed in life.
Correct Hindquarter Assembly (viewed from side)
Left: Shows the relationship of the bone structure to the outline of the hindquarters. The various large bones and groups of smaller bones are labelled with both the Latin names and the terminology in common usage.

Middle: Detail drawing of the correct hindquarter assembly which will provide the Collie with a maximum drive, lift and power for propulsion. The mechanical efficiency depends upon several features of angulation which experience has shown to be correct for the breed.
    
The hind leg is firmly attached to the skeletal framework through an articulated attachment to the Ilium (pelvis). The pelvis should be sloped at an angle of 30 degrees (Angle X) to the Horizontal as shown on the line (a-b). The axis of the Femur (thigh or upper leg) should intersect the pelvic slope at 90 degrees (Angle Y) as indicated by the typical axis line (c-d). The stifle, consisting of two bones, the Tibia and the Fibula, is articulated with the Femur and should be distinctly angled at the "stifle joint." (This is referred to as "Good bend of stifle".) At the lower end, where it meets the hock "joint", the line of the stifle (o-f) should intersect the vertical line of the Hock-Metatarsus (g-h) at an angle of 45 to 50 degrees. (Angle Z). The overall length of the stifle should at least equal the length of the thighbone, and preferably should exceed it. (---Hocks well let down- is indicated by the shortness of the hock-i.e. close to the ground---in relation to the long stifle bone.)
    
Leverage exerted by the stifle and a short, straight hock, in action with the tendons and muscles, produces lifting action and, with the Femur, the power to move the Collie smoothly and without wasted muscular effort. (Assuming, of course, that the front quarters are also correctly ‘angulated’.) When moving at a fast trot the combined forces reach maximum thrust along line "A" and not over the Centre of Gravity "B" as might be supposed.
    
Line A dropped vertically from the Ischium (buttock) should parallel the inside of the hock and bisect the foot. This is the position assumed when the Collie stands "four square" at attention. When at ease, a Collie will often shift one or both feet up to the normal centre of gravity. This is not to be confused with a bent or "sickle" hock which is an anatomical defect due to an abnormal curvature of the Metatarsal bones below the Os Calcis, or "hock joint". A "Sickle Hock can not be straightened by the dog when in action and is faulty because it opposes the principles of leverage.

Right: Correct Hindquarters as observed in life.

An easy way to check rear angulation is to lift the hock ( os calis) up to the buttok (ischium). If the os calis comes right up to the ischium you have a well angulated dog. Roos

SKELETON
SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE
CORRECT FRONT
SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES 
SKELETON
Correct Front
Narrow Front
Front too wide
Out at elbows & toes in
'East West' Front Narrow & pinched at elbows & chest. Feet turn out.
'Fiddle Front'
Legs give bowed, weak effect above pasterns, turn out below.
CORRECT REAR
SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES
SKELETON
Correct Hocks
'Spraddle' or Bowed Hocks
Cow Hocks
Narrow, Weak Rear
TAILS
The tail should be long with the bone reaching at least to the hock joint. To be carried low when the dog is quiet, with a slight upward swirl at the tip. It may be carried gaily when the dog is excited, but never over the back
Correct tail carriage, correctly set and of good length. Although the 4th dog appears to be carrying its tail too high it is not over the dotted line and therefore acceptable.
Incorrect Tails
Tails carried too high and over the back
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